What is building insulation? Why should we insulate? What type of insulation should we choose? Nowadays, when it comes to saving energy, insulating or insulating buildings to protect the environment and make them more comfortable is a must. What are the types of building insulation and what is their effect?
In recent years, with the growth of the construction industry and the growing trend of fossil fuels, saving energy consumption has become very important. One way to save and reduce energy loss in buildings or apartments is to insulate or insulate them.
Insulators are generally divided into different types in terms of application, material, form and function. But the most important types of insulation in terms of application in construction are sound, heat and moisture insulation, which in this article we will explain each of them and their advantages and disadvantages.
What is building insulation?
Anything that prevents the passage of mass and energy is called insulation. Insulation is a material used as a covering on the roof, floor and walls of a building. Building insulation has different uses. Some of them are used to prevent the exchange of heat or cold in the building. Waterproofing is used to prevent water and moisture from entering and leaving, and soundproofing is used to control noise and reduce noise pollution in the building.
There are different types of insulation in the market in the form of plate, board, brick, sheet and strip.
Why should we insulate?
An important insulation plan in a building can be summarized as follows:
- Reduce energy waste
- Reduce noise pollution
- Fire protection of the building
- Increase the durability of the structure
- Creating heating and cooling comfort for residents
Rules related to insulation or insulation of the building:
The issue of insulation or building insulation to save energy and protect the environment has been seriously pursued and pursued for many years in many countries. In Iran, “Energy and Saving Regulations” became mandatory in 2002 in accordance with national building regulations. According to these regulations, the thermal resistance of the exterior components of the building should not be lower than a certain limit.
The nineteenth article of these regulations, which deals with energy saving, is as follows: “Buildings must be designed to reduce energy consumption while being economical. Measures to reduce energy consumption in buildings
They are used, although they generally increase the cost of construction during implementation, but they significantly reduce the cost of energy consumption. “In a way that within the first few years of operation of the building, it will compensate for the extra cost of construction and after that it will be absolutely beneficial for the operator.”
Exterior components of the building are walls and ceilings that are in contact with the indoor environment on the one hand and with the open air on the other hand. Other walls or ceilings inside the building are not covered by these regulations. Determining the allowable thermal resistance of external components is such that buildings are divided into four groups. This classification is based on geographical location, type of use, the size of the city in which the building is located and the infrastructure of the building. Then the amount of insulation required in each of these four groups is determined. Compliance with these minimums is mandatory in buildings constructed in urban areas, and the building completion certificate will be issued by the municipality only if these conditions are met. So be sure to pay attention to these when building an apartment or house.
But the important question: what kind of insulation to choose?
Factors affecting the type and amount of insulation used in buildings are as follows:
- – Thermal conductivity
- – Sensitivity to moisture
- – The amount of pressure resistance
- Ease of installation
- Ease of replacement
- – Resistance to fungi and germs
In addition to the above, the choice of thermal insulation depends on the ambient temperature, safety, environmental conditions and its price. Note that the thickness of the insulation should be chosen in such a way that it is economically optimal, ie with the minimum thickness of insulation to prevent energy loss.
Types of building insulation in terms of performance:
- Sound insulation
Sometimes a material can have all three properties of sound insulation, moisture insulation and heat insulation at the same time, such as rock wool or pvc foam. Sometimes an insulation has only one specific function, such as thermal insulation such as fiberglass or sound insulation such as Leica concrete or moisture insulation such as isogum.
Types of building insulation in terms of material:
Polymeric insulation, synthetic material
Mineral insulation, natural materials
What is sound insulation?
Sound insulation is a layer that is used to prevent sound penetration and sound exchange in the environment. These insulators are used in homes, cinemas and conference halls and everywhere to prevent noise pollution.
Types of sound insulation are:
Acoustic sound insulation
This type of insulation is available in the form of acoustic foam or super-acoustic on the market. An insulator is said to have the task of absorbing sound, reducing sound vibration, and ultimately eliminating noise pollution. These acoustic panels or foams are available in different shapes, thicknesses, densities and absorption coefficients of different sounds, but their sound level is also directly related to these parameters.
Acoustic foams are widely used in the construction, technology and music industries. Acoustic foams are used in industry to reduce noise in generators, compressors, potholes and elevator cabins, all kinds of noisy pumps, in buildings for soundproofing rooms and common walls of the house, as well as in cinemas and conference halls.
Acoustic foams are installed in the form of surface sound insulation, facing the sound source, and thus fully absorb a variety of sound frequencies.
Acoustic panels have different examples that you can choose the color and material you want according to your taste and interior decoration design. One of the most common types of acoustic insulation is the “egg comb”. These egg-shaped foams, because of their hexagonal shape, can absorb a wide range of high-frequency sounds and prevent them from echoing.
– Ease of installation
Fiberglass and mineral sound insulation
Fiberglass is the most common insulation used in modern times. This sound insulation is made in the form of a roll of fiberglass, stone and cotton and is placed in wooden frames mounted on the wall and can minimize sound transmission. Fiberglass is an excellent non-flammable insulating material. Just be sure to use eye protection, a mask and gloves when installing it.
– Resistant to parasites
Sound insulation gypsum panel
Gypsum panel is one of the building materials known as gypsum panel products. All gypsum panel products include gypsum cores. Gypsum panel is used as a sound insulation of the wall, as a surface, and can only be used with a coating such as paint or paper for interior spaces such as ceilings and walls. In this method, more layers of plaster are placed on wall or ceiling blocks.
-Easy to install
Durability and stability
Viscoelastic sound insulation
A viscoelastic material is an insulator that converts mechanical energy from sound vibrations into heat. This sound insulation is used on floors, walls, between hard layers such as wood or gypsum and cement walls.
What is thermal insulation?
Thermal insulation is a material that prevents heat transfer from one environment to another. Heat is always transferred from a warm environment to a cold environment, for example in a house in winter the heat is transferred from the inside to the outside and in summer the heat is transferred from the inside to the inside. Thermal insulation prevents these exchanges. Thermal insulation is the best and most important factor for controlling and consuming energy of buildings.
The most common types of thermal insulation:
Thermal insulation of fiberglass or fiberglass
Fiberglass or fiberglass, which we described in the section on sound insulation, is one of the most common insulators in the world, which is both sound and heat. The thermal resistance of fiberglass insulation is between 2.9 and 3.8 [m2K / W] due to the installation and quality of the numerical material. If you are looking for cheap and suitable insulation, this type of thermal insulation is excellent.
* “Thermal resistance” is a thermal (physical) property that indicates the resistance of each material to heat transfer due to temperature differences. Heat resistance is denoted by R, whose unit is [m2K / W].
-Easy to install
-Security against parasites and bacteria
Thermal insulation of mineral wool or rock wool
This type of insulation is made of volcanic rock or slag wool produced by steel mills. Slag is a waste of the steel industry. This slag is in the form of granules and is used in concrete roofs. The coefficient of thermal resistance for mineral wool insulation is between 2.8 to 3.5 [m2K / W].
– Immune against the growth of parasites and bacteria
Cellulose thermal insulation
Cellulose insulation is probably one of the most suitable insulations in terms of environmental compatibility. Cellulose is made from recycled cardboard, paper and other similar materials. Some recent studies on cellulose have shown that it can be an excellent ingredient in minimizing fire damage. Due to the density of the material, cellulose insulation does not contain any oxygen.
Despite its durability, this insulation can have drawbacks. For example, the development of allergies, such as allergies that some people may have to newspaper dust. The thermal resistance of cellulose insulation is between 3.1 and 3.7 [m2K / W].
– Fire resistant
Polyurethane foam thermal insulation
Polyurethane insulators, although not very common, are very durable. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gas is used to make this type of insulation, which helps reduce the damage to the ozone layer. They are light in weight and thin in thickness, and are easily sprayed on non-insulated surfaces. Since smoke may be generated during spraying, be sure to use professionals to install them. The heat exchange resistance of polyurethane thermal insulation is 3.6 [m2K / W].
– Fire resistant
Polystyrene thermal insulation
Polystyrene is a waterproof foam that is very resistant to heat and moisture. Polystyrene insulation has a smooth surface and is suitable for wall insulation. Note that this insulation is flammable and the HBCD fire resistant coating must be applied to the entire surface of the polystyrene insulation.
Nano thermal insulation
Nano insulation materials are produced using nanotechnology and are one of the newest thermal insulation products in the world. The unique feature of these insulators is that they are liquid and can be easily used on different surfaces. There are different types of insulation and it is used for insulation of residential, commercial buildings, tanks and building pipes.
-ease of use
Other thermal insulators include polyethylene, phenolic, polyvinyl chloride, urea formaldehyde, nitrile foam, perlite and natural insulations such as hemp, fleece and cotton.
What is waterproofing?
Waterproofing is one of the most important components of a building that can not be ignored. Inadequate waterproofing causes water and moisture to penetrate into the building and especially in the cold season when there is a lot of rain and snow, it can cause damage to the building.
Types of waterproofing:
Waterproofing bitumen and sack:
Bitumen is a natural product that is soluble in crude oil and is composed of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. This insulation, which is the most traditional method of moisture insulation, is resistant to moisture, water and ice due to its adhesive properties. The use of this insulation depends on climatic conditions. For example, in tropical regions, bitumen should be used that is hard and not soft and smooth due to heat, and in cold regions, bitumen should be used that does not crack due to cold.
Resistant to acids, bases and salts
– Installation risks
Pollution and damage to the environment
Possibility of drumming and cracking
This insulation is available in the market in roll form and its use is very common in Iran. Installing this insulation is like bitumen and sack with fire. But it weighs less and is easier to install than gypsum. Note that the surface under the isogum insulation and bitumen insulation must be completely clean, dry and without any moisture. To install ceramic tiles on insulated surfaces, a layer of cement should be used under the tiles.
-The price is right
Easier installation than bitumen and sack
– Installation risks
Pollution and damage to the environment
One of the best types of insulation is fiberglass felt. These insulators are often made of materials such as bitumen, polymeric materials, fabric layers and polyethylene. Some of these insulators are covered with aluminum, which also reflects light and heat. The thickness of these insulators is between 2 to 6 mm. These insulators in Iran are divided into two categories:
– Foundation insulation, which is used after buildings.
– Roof insulation for roofs, exterior surfaces, toilets, swimming pools and..
Lightweight and flexible
– Stability against atmospheric factors
– Short useful life
High cost of repairs
These insulators are primers that are composed of various types of bitumen, resins and other additives and have a liquid state. The primers are applied to the surface using a paint brush, roller or spray to create a moisture-proof and anti-corrosion coating. This type of insulation can be used to insulate concrete surfaces, building metal structures, column plates, wooden beams, water, sewage and gas pipes.
– High adhesion
– Has the ability to paint
-Easy to install
Polymeric materials have thermal and moisture insulation properties together. These insulators are applied in the form of sheets on the surfaces. Polymer insulation does not require heat and is applied by spraying or spraying on surfaces. These types of insulation include butyl, acrylic, polyurethane, silicone, non-woven polyester, epoxy and cloud insulation.
-High useful life
Nano-insulation is one of the modern insulations in the construction industry. Nano process is used in the production of these insulators and water-based polymeric materials are used to make it. This type of insulation can be used to insulate building facades, roofs, tile and wood insulation. The nanoparticles in these insulators have hydrophobic properties and even antibacterial types of these insulators can be used in buildings, toilets and swimming pools. Nano-insulators are shockproof and UV resistant. Nanopolymer waterproofing is an example of nano-insulation.
Odorless and chemical effects
Lightweight and fire resistant
-Security against parasites and bacteria
Choose the right insulation!
If you have read the above text in full, you must have noticed that there are different types of building insulation with different specifications and features, and only with a comprehensive and complete research can you choose the insulation that suits your needs and the structure you want.
Fiberglass, for example, is cheap, but requires careful consideration. Mineral wool is effective, but not fire resistant. Fire-resistant cellulose is environmentally friendly and effective, but it is difficult to use. Polyurethane is a good insulator, but it is not environmentally friendly, or polystyrene is a versatile and durable insulator, but its safety is debatable.
But the most important thing is the strength of the insulation. The higher the resistance, the less heat, moisture or sound insulation it will pass through and the more savings it will bring. So instead of the thickness of the insulation, their strength should be compared.
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